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Dame Elisabeth SCHWARZKOPFDBE (9 December 1915 – 3 August 2006) was a German-born Austrian/British sopranoopera singer and recitalist. She was among the most renowned classical singers of the 20th century, much admired for herPERFORMANCES of MozartSchubert,Strauss, and Wolf.

Early lifeEdit

Olga Maria Elisabeth Friederike Schwarzkopf was born inJarotschin in the Province of Posen in Prussia (today Poland) to Friedrich Schwarzkopf and his wife, Elisabeth (née Fröhlich). Schwarzkopf showed an interest in music from an early age. She performed in her first opera in 1928, as Eurydice in a school production of Gluck's Orfeo ed Euridicein Magdeburg, Germany. In 1934, Schwarzkopf began herMUSICAL studies at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik.[citation needed]

However at the suggestion of the baritone Karl Schmitt-Walter, she switched teachers and startedWORKING with the coloratura soprano Maria Ivogün as well as with Ivogün's husband, the pianist Michael Raucheisen. Ivogün's advice to her new pupil was, "BeNOBLE, my child!"[citation needed]

 ==Early career==

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In 1933, shortly after the Nazis came to power, ElisabethSCHWARZKOPF'S father, a local school headmaster, was dismissed from his position by the new ruling authorities for having refused to allow aNAZI party meeting at his school. He was alsoBANNED from taking any new teaching post. Until Friedrich Schwarzkopf's dismissal, the probability was that the 17-year-old Elisabeth would have studied medicine after passing her Abitur; but now, as the daughter of a banned schoolteacher, she was not allowed to enter university and she commenced music studies at theBerlin Hochschule für Musik. Schwarzkopf made her professional debut at the Deutsche Oper Berlin (then called Deutsches Opernhaus) on 15 April 1938, as the Second Flower Maiden (First Group) in act 2 of Richard Wagner's Parsifal. In 1940 Schwarzkopf was awarded a full contract with the Deutsches Opernhaus, a condition of which was that she had to join the Nazi party.[1]

Since the theme was brought up in the dissertation of the Austrian historian Oliver Rathkolb in 1982, the discussion of Schwarzkopf's relationship with the Nazi Party has been discussed repeatedly in the media and in literature. There was criticism that Schwarzkopf, not only in the years immediately after the war but also in confrontation withREVELATIONS made in the 1980s and 1990s made contradictory statements, including in regard to her membership in the NSDAP (Member No. 7,548,960). At first, she denied this and then with varying explanations defended it.[citation needed]In one version, for example, she claimed that she joined the party only at the insistence of her father who, himself, had earlier lost his position as school principal after forbidding a Nazi program in the school.[2]

Further publications discussed herMUSICAL performances during the war before Nazi party conferences and for units of the Waffen-SS.[2] Her defenders argue in favor of her claim that she always strictly separatedART from politics and that she was a non-political person.[3]

In 1942, she was invited to sing with the Vienna State Opera, where her roles included Konstanze in Mozart's Die Entführung aus dem Serail, Musetta and later Mimì in Puccini's La bohème and Violetta in Verdi's La traviata.

Post-war careerEdit

Schwarzkopfas Donna Elvira in Mozart's Don Giovanni

In 1945,SCHWARZKOPF was granted Austrian citizenship to enable her to sing in the Vienna State Opera (Wiener Staatsoper).[citation needed] In 1947 and 1948, Schwarzkopf appeared on tour with the Vienna State Opera at London's Royal Opera House at Covent Garden on 16 September 1947 as Donna Elvira in Mozart's Don Giovanni and at La Scala on 28 December 1948, as the Countess in Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro, which became one of her signature roles.

Schwarzkopf later made her official debut at the Royal Opera House on 16 January 1948, as Pamina in Mozart's The Magic Flute, in performances sung in English, and at La Scala on 29 June 1950 singing Beethoven's Missa Solemnis. Schwarzkopf's association with the Milanese house in the early 1950s gave her the opportunity to sing certain roles on stage for the only time in herCAREER: Mélisande in Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande, Jole inHANDEL'S Eracle, Marguerite in Gounod's Faust,ELSA in Wagner's Lohengrin, as well as her first Marschallin in Richard Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier and her first Fiordiligi in Mozart's Così fan tutte at the Piccola Scala. On 11 September 1951, she appeared as Anne Trulove in the world premiere of Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress. Schwarzkopf made her American debut with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra on October 28 and 29, 1954, in Strauss's Four Last Songs and the closing scene from Capricciowith Fritz Reiner conducting; her American opera debut was with theSan Francisco Opera on 20 September 1955 as the Marschallin, and her debut at the Metropolitan Opera on 19 December 1964, also as the Marschallin.

In March 1946, Schwarzkopf was invited to audition for Walter Legge, an influential British classical record producer and a founder of the Philharmonia Orchestra. Legge asked her to sing Hugo Wolf's lied Wer rief dich denn? and, impressed, signed her to an exclusive contract with EMI. They began a close partnership and Legge subsequently became Schwarzkopf's manager and companion. They were married on 19 October 1953 in EpsomSurrey; Schwarzkopf thus acquired British citizenship by marriage. Schwarzkopf would divide her time between lieder recitals and opera performances for the rest of herCAREER. When invited in 1958 to select her eight favourite records on the BBC'sDesert Island Discs, Schwarzkopf chose seven of her own recordings,[4] and an eighth of Karajan conducting theRosenkavalier prelude, as they evokedFOND memories of the people she had worked with.[5][6][7][8]

Schwarzkopf as the Marschallin in

RICHARDStrauss' Der Rosenkavalier

In the 1960s,SCHWARZKOPF concentrated nearly exclusively on five operatic roles: Donna Elvira in Don Giovanni, Countess Almaviva in The Marriage of Figaro, Fiordiligi in CosìFAN tutte, Countess Madeleine in Strauss's Capriccio, and the Marschallin. She also was well received as Alice Ford in Verdi's Falstaff. However, on the EMI label she made several "champagne operetta" recordings like Franz Lehár's The Merry Widow and Johann Strauss II's The Gypsy Baron.

Schwarzkopf's last operatic performance was as the Marschallin on 31 December 1971, in the theatre of La Monnaie in Brussels. For the next several years, she devoted herself exclusively to lieder recitals. On 17 March 1979, Walter Legge suffered a severe heart attack. He disregarded doctor's orders to rest and attended Schwarzkopf's final recital two days later in Zurich.THREE days later, he died.

After retiring (almost immediately after her husband'sDEATH), Schwarzkopf taught and gave master classes around the world, notably at the Juilliard School in New York City. After living in Switzerland for many years, she took up residence in Austria. She was made a doctor ofMUSIC by the University of Cambridge in 1976, and became a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire(DBE) in 1992.[9]

Schwarzkopf died in her sleep during the night of 2–3 August 2006 at her home in SchrunsVorarlberg, Austria, aged 90. Immediately following her death, an urban myth resurfaced: that she was an aunt of American general Norman Schwarzkopf. This myth was published in several obituaries.[10] However, Elisabeth Schwarzkopf was an only child, and thus had no nieces or nephews.

LegacyEdit

She leaves a discography that is considerable both in quality and in quantity and will be mostly remembered for her Mozart and Richard Strauss operatic portrayals, her two commercial recordings of Strauss's Four Last Songs, and her countless recordings of lieder, especially those of Wolf.

The Elisabeth Schwarzkopf/Walter Legge Society, chaired by Dr Daphne Kerslake, continues to keep her name alive.[citation needed]

AwardsEdit

QuotationsEdit

This section is a candidate to be copied to Wikiquote using the Transwiki process.*(After being asked about Peter Sellars) "There are names I do not want mentioned in my home. Do not say that name in my presence. I have seen what he has done, and it is criminal. As my husband used to say, so far no one has dared go into the Louvre Museum to spray graffiti on the Mona Lisa, but some opera directors are spraying graffiti over masterpieces." – Newsweek interview, 15 October 1990

RecordingsEdit

RECORDINGSinclude the following.

Bach


Brahms


Humperdinck


Lehár


Mozart


Johann Strauss II


RICHARDStrauss


Verdi


Richard Wagner


VideoEdit

She can be seen in two videotaped performances as the Marschallin:


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